important events in texas history

This was the founding of the city of San Antonio, the most significant Texas settlement of the Spanish era. Businesses also needed a way to ship their goods through the expanding area. Edmund J. Davis becomes the first Republican governor of Texas. As more settlers arrived from the American South, the enslaved population grew rapidly. May 14 - Santa Anna and Texas' provisional president David Burnet sign two Treaties of Velasco - one public, the other secret - ending the Texas It was over. purpose of education industrial revolution scholarship essay close reading slavery gender equality martin luther king narrative persuasion racial profiling heroes what it means to be an american discrimination critical gun violence. Jacqueline Cochran was officially appointed Air Force Director of Women Pilots and joined the Commander General's offices at the Pentagon. 1917 - Gov. At 11:02 a.m., a B-29 bomber dropped "Fat Boy" on Nagasaki. Governor William P. Hobby signed it into law on March 26, 1918. WCTU members were the foundation of the women's suffrage organizations that began to form in the next decade. Although F.D.R. This makes possible the wholesale settlement of the western 1990 - Democrat Ann Richards becomes the first woman governor of Texas in her own right. Cattle were turned loose in south Texas and their populations rapidly increased. It changes, grows, becomes richer, and more complex when any individual Jackie Cochran pinned the coveted silver Women Airforce Service Pilots wings above the left pocket of the graduates' jackets. The law also established the "Mustang Fund" which imposed a tax on ranchers for all the branded livestock they rounded up. Modern communication is something we all take for granted, but 19th-century Texans weren't so lucky. The bill passed unanimously. The Mexican territory of Tejas was opened to settlers on the conditions that they become Mexican citizens, learn Spanish and adopt the Catholic faith. Republic of Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar ordered the expulsion or extermination of all American Indian tribes. In 1823, Stephen F. Austin received permission from Mexican authorities to bring settlers from the United States to Texas. In one of their non-flying assignments, several Women Airforce Service Pilots participated in high altitude testing to determine how oxygen affected women pilots. In his address, General Powell said, "The powerful purpose of this monument it to motivate us. By the end of the day, approximately 156,000 Allied troops had invaded, with more than 4,000 losses. Ferguson's men formed an ineffective and often sleazy "Special Ranger" force and crime rose steadily. 1598 - April 30 - Thanksgiving is held near present-day El Paso by Juan de Onate, the members of his expedition and natives of the region. 1947 - April 16 - The French-owned SS Grandcamp, carrying ammonium nitrate, explodes in the Texas City harbor, followed the next morning Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin. Large settlements with mound centers like this existed up and down the Mississippi River and were interconnected through trade. By 1863, all Frontier Regiment Rangers were drafted into the Confederate Army. 1835 - The first offensive action of the Texas Revolution occurred in Goliad on October 9, 1835 when local colonists captured the fort and town. Mexican troops restored order, but the incident led Mexico to severely restrict further immigration into Texas from the United States and Europe, a bitter pill for the majority of colonists who had remained peaceable. Nine Texans were killed, and 630 Mexicans lost their lives. Colonel Paul Lockhart, pilot of Space Shuttle Mission STS-111, took a 1962 Texas Ranger badge into orbit in honor of the 180th anniversary of the Texas Rangers. La Bahia was the only mission to actually participate. With the mammoth and many other big game species from the Ice Age extinct, the Folsom people followed large herds of bison that were larger than the bison of today. After a battle of several hours, Carson and his troops narrowly escaped, outnumbered by about 1,400 Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache warriors. The switch from a nomadic hunter-gatherer life style to horticulture contributed to more reliable food sources and settled lifestyles. The new technology spread across much of North America around this time. By 1845, when Texas was annexed to the United States, there were at least 30,000 enslaved people, mostly working on plantations in East Texas. Comanches, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827–1830. After settling, there were many attempts from the French to ambush the Spanish and to colonize the land for French ownership. The History of Galveston, Texas, begins with the archaeological record of Native Americans who used the island.The first European settlements on the island were constructed around 1816. Peoples settled in what is now Texas thousands of years before European explorers arrived in North America. From many chapters comes one sprawling Story of Texas. His trip seemed doomed from the beginning. Marie Mountain Clark, Class 44-1from WASP: In their Own Words by Nancy Parrish, "I hitched a ride on an Army plane and got as far as New York, or somewhere on the East Coast. Houston was replaced by Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark. An estimated 90% of the American Indian population died from epidemics. 1943 - June - A race riot in Beaumont leads to a declaration of martial law. Merely declaring independence was a long way from winning the revolution. The provisional Texas government passed a resolution officially creating a corps of over 50 rangers. In 1907, Laureles was incorporated into the mighty King Ranch. They were slowly transitioning from being nomadic hunter-gatherers to farmers. As many as 7,000 cattle were captured and branded. They traveled long distances to hunt these animals with spears. This well produced only about ten barrels a day. When Ranger Captain Bill McDonald arrived alone in Langtry, the city's mayor asked where the rest of the Rangers were. McDonald allegedly replied, "Hell, ain't I enough? He did the same at Spindletop with the Texas Company (later Texaco), which purchased oil and transported by barge and rail car to a new refinery in Port Arthur. Comanche Feats of Horsemanship, 1834–1835, by George Catlin. War was officially declared by U.S. Congress on May 13. He later took up arms again to fight both the Mexicans and the Comanche. In 1901, a gusher drilled at Spindletop, near Beaumont, made Texas an oil power. "Wets" and "Drys"— those opposed to and for prohibition, respectively— battled over the issue in the Texas legislature for decades. Eight others are killed on Oct. 18 at the Rio Grande. 1979 -April 10 - Several tornadoes kill 53 in West Texas, including 42 in Wichita Falls, and cause $400 million in damages. Moses Austin died in 1821, however, and his son, Stephen F. Austin, inherited the land grant for 300 families. On April 29, 1554, three ships were wrecked in a storm on Padre Island, near present-day Port Mansfield. In time, these expert traders helped establish trade routes as well as diplomatic relationships among American Indians, the Spanish, and the French. Almost ten years after winning independence from Mexico, and after a long and controversial diplomatic struggle, Texas was annexed to the United States under the administration of President James Polk. Victorio withdrew to the mountains of Mexico, where he was killed by Mexican soldiers. The “Antelope Creek” people lived in the present-day Texas panhandle between 1150 and 1450. 1759 - August - Spanish troops on a retaliatory raid are defeated by Indian residents of a large encampment at Spanish Fort in present-day 1554 - Coronado dies. The tribal representatives agreed to stay west of the Colorado River and north of the Llano River, to abide by U.S. laws, and to turn over fugitive enslaved people and individuals being held as prisoners. Image courtesy Star of the Republic Museum. Chiefs Satank, Satanta, and Big Tree were arrested and put on trial. When the strike ended in June 1918, 25% of the workers had lost their jobs, though many companies did voluntarily raise wages and extend benefits for those who were kept on. All WASP military records were sealed, classified, and sent to storage archives for 30 years. Corn farmers settle near the Presidio in the area where the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos join around 1500 BCE. Following the end of the Civil War, the cattle industry began to rebound. The “Folsom” people lived a hunter-gather lifestyle very similar to the Clovis people. The Seminole of Florida included escaped slaves in their communities. Former Standard Oil executive Joseph F. Cullinan had founded Magnolia Company to put the Corsicana oil fields on a businesslike footing. 1894 - June 9 - Oil is discovered at Corsicana; a commercial field opens in 1896, becoming the first small step in Texas' rise as a major In the war with Spain, Major General Shafter led 17,000 troops, including 3,000 Buffalo Soldiers, into Cuba. J. Of the first families, known as the "Old Three Hundred," sixty-nine brought enslaved people. Legendary Apache Chief Victorio crossed back into Texas after successful raids in New Mexico. Moses' son, Stephen F. Austin, traveled to Texas to renegotiate his father's grant and to scout land near Brazoria. In 1757, the Spanish established Santa Cruz de San Sabá as a mission to the Apache. Known as the "Harrisburg Railroad," the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway ran about 20 miles from Harrisburg to Stafford's Point. 1888 - May 16 - Present state capitol is dedicated. Texans adopt a prohibition amendment to the state constitution. This expedition marked the first European crossing of the Mississippi River. Courtesy of The Field Museum, Cat. January 1688 - Colonists at Fort St. Louis not felled by Indians, disease, poisonous snakes and malnutrition are finished off by Karankawa The challenge was getting them there. Amidst the conflict, thousands upon thousands of Americans were immigrating to Texas. They are at their peak for only about 20 years, until the proliferation of railroads makes Review the major trends and events in Texas history by working through this self-paced study guide chapter. His tales of the native peoples, land, and resources in North America ignited the era of Spanish colonization. About 2,000 Caddo, Keechi, Waco, Delaware, Tonkawa, and Penateka Comanche, lived on the reservation. community of about 2,800 people, about 75 miles south of Dallas and 120 miles north of Austin. 1827- January 31 - This so-called Fredonian Rebellion is an attempt by empresario Haden Edwards to separate his colony from Mexico. John Nance Garner, Texas, Vice President-D-1933-41; 1868 Event. Shortly after the trade ban was lifted in 1779, the Spanish colonial government reversed their decision because of the surge of smuggling. 1823 - Jan. 3 - Stephen F. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the region of the Brazos River. One of Texas's best examples of a Caddo mound is located in present-day Cherokee County. Finding gold was one objective of Spanish colonization in North America. In 1855 the Texas legislature appropriated funds to purchase 640 acres for the Coushattas. Home / History / Modern History / US History / What Major Historical Events Happened in Texas, Other Than the Alamo? 1810 - Sept. 16 - Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo and several hundred of his parishioners seize the prison at Dolores, Mexico, beginning Granger proclaimed the end of slavery for 250,000 African Americans as well as the end of the Confederacy. Event; 1500: Native Americans occupied Texas. The Centennial Exposition was held in Dallas on the state fairgrounds, and opened on June 6, 1936. The Franciscans turned new attention to East Texas beginning in 1716. Refineries that rivaled the largest in the world were built. June 19 - Gen. Gordon Granger arrives at Galveston to announce that slavery has been abolished, an event commemorated today by the festival known AAF Commander General Hap Arnold presented Jacqueline Cochran with the U.S. Others drown attempting to swim Oct. 4 - The Agricultural and Mechanical College, later Texas A&M University, opens at College Station, becoming the first public institution Two factors ended the legendary cattle drives. Its history is rich with battle, strife, pride and power. Though the Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870, granted all U.S. citizens the right to vote regardless of race, it wasn't until the Snyder Act that Native Americans could enjoy the rights of American Citizenship. Fearing the possibility of losing control of Texas, Mexico banned further immigration from the United States on April 6, 1830. 1528- Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked near Galveston begin exploration. Texas' annexation to the United States was blocked over concern about slavery and debt. By 1906 Powell produced 673,221 barrels of oil, which grew to more than 33 million barrels in 1924. Shutsy Reynolds, Class 44-5from WASP: In their Own Words by Nancy Parrish. Spindletop nearly ripped its derrick to pieces and shot a tower of pure crude 100 feet in the air. Nov. 24 - The Texas Rangers organization is officially established by Texas' provisional government. They were the first Native American leaders to be tried for raids in a U.S. Court. All of the men want to stay home. U.S. troops deployed at Utah and Omaha Beaches. From the pueblos of New Mexico, a few priests began to venture into West Texas. These Buffalo Soldiers served with French infantry units in the Battle of the Argonne and the second Battle of the Marne. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." The Mexicans surrender on June 29. 1720 -February - San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo mission founded near San Antonio de Valero. Bush and his wife Barbara. 1779 - Group of settlers led by Antonio Gil Ybarbo (sometimes spelled Ibarvo or Y'barvo) establishes a civilian community near an abandoned 1. The Spanish also hoped to form an alliance with the Apache against the Comanche and allied northern tribes. They eventually claimed vast areas of north, central, and west Texas as part of "Comancheria." 1731 -. The first cattle arrived in Texas in the 1690s. in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. From 800-1500 BCE, the farmers and hunters build and occupy stone dwellings located southeast of Perryton May 11 - A tornado kills 114, injures 597 at Waco; 150 homes and 185 other buildings are destroyed. This took place only a month after Santa Anna entered Texas with his army of 6,000 men. General Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, dedicated the Buffalo Soldier Monument at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Image courtesy of the Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa. Secession is official on March 2. 1519 - Mid - Spanish explorer Alonso Alvarez de Pineda maps Texas coastline. The result was chaos. Beaumont was one of many cities in the U.S.—including Detroit, New York, Mobile, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Baltimore, Saint Louis, and Indianapolis—where intense race riots occurred during World War II. About 500 tribe members settled on this land during the winter of 1854–55. Nov. 25 - Texas' governor signs the Compromise of 1850, in which Texas gives up its claim to land that includes more than half of what is now In 1983 the Kickapoo also received Federal Recognition and received dual American citizenship with Mexico. The idea was nixed. However, the treaty was not ratified by the U.S. government and neither side honored its provisions. 1812 -August 8 - About 130-men strong, the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition crossed the Sabine from Louisiana in a rebel movement against Spanish By the 1730s, missionaries were operating cattle ranches around San Antonio and Goliad. Image courtesy of Texas General Land Office. Timeline of important events in the history of Texas City 1854 – US Government built a light house near the current base of the Texas City Dike. These laws increased the presence of the Mexican military, implemented new taxes, forbade the settlers from bringing more slaves into Texas, and banned new immigration from the United States. U.S. Army Col. April 29 - Fifty-three camels arrive at port of Indianola for a US Army experiment using them for pack animals in the arid areas of the Southwest. Kiowas. In part to thank the tribes for their support of the Texas Revolution in 1836, the petition was approved. The forces endeavoring to enslave the entire world now are moving toward this hemisphere. The Jumano were trading partners of the Spanish for almost two centuries before famine and war sent their population into a steep decline. J. The overheated economy crashed in the Panic of 1873, causing the value of cattle to plummet. James K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844 on a promise to annex Texas (slave state) and the Oregon Territory (free state). Apr 1, 1833. convention of 1833 Met at San felipe on April 1. In 1683 and 1684, the people of La Junta (near present-day Presidio) petitioned for missionaries to return to their area. Kenedy fenced his ranch with smooth wire in 1869, marking the beginning of enclosed ranching in Texas. Their primary goals were to convert the American Indians to Christianity and to teach them to live according to Spanish culture. Three years later, Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers and became the first African American to play major league baseball. President Wilson ordered Brigadier General John "Black Jack" Pershing to capture Villa in what became known as "Pershing's Punitive Expedition." Charlyne Creger, Class 44-10from WASP: In their Own Words by Nancy Parrish, 1800 Congress Ave.Austin, TX 78701 • Map it, IMAX Information: (512) 936 - 4629 Tickets: Email Us, All content © Bullock Texas State History Museum •. In March of 1758, over 2,000 Comanche and allied norther tribes staged a massive attack, burning down the mission and killing all but one of the missionaries. Nonetheless, the Spanish withdrew from East Texas for two years. The Comanches were to become the most dominant people in the area. Organized in 1848 to serve both Baptists and Methodists, the church became a driving force in African American life. This is our mission, to preserve and promote Texas and its rich history. Texans were initially okay with this development because of Santa Anna's support for the Constitution of 1824, which was very similar to the U.S. Constitution. Women pilots, in this particular case, are a weapon waiting to be used. The next year saw the first patent for refrigerated railcars, meaning meat no longer needed to be transported "on the hoof." The Buffalo Soldiers scurried to fire at the invaders while herding their valuable horses back toward the fort's corral. and "Remember Goliad! Bullets and arrows flew throughout the night. are challenged by Mexican forces at Velasco. This single troop loss accounted for 20% of all Alamo battle losses. In 1632, Juan de Salas and Juan de Ortega established a mission near present-day San Angelo. Transferred to other bases for B-26 bomber training plan to bring colonists to the back of a segregated bus training! Officially claimed all the land near the Red River Telegraph Company established Service battle... Machu Pichu at Salineras de Maras on the bison and to establish a colony of Anglo-Americans in “... Called up '' to military Service for twelve months artifacts made at 16,000! Immortal 32. `` last of the United States to Texas to Congressional representation chiefs to... Colonial government reversed their decision because of the year 1930 - Sept. -! In 1528 1150 and 1450 for missionaries to return to a watery underworld Archives for 30 years de. About 500 tribe members settled on this land during the 1915-1918 wars with Mexico as high 3,000. Act, the first cities in the conviction of House speaker Gus Mutscher and two women were n't ready embrace. In 1944 strike in Texas History facts in school organizations that began to feel exploited by Spanish colonialism a... A yearly powwow in October 1845 and was no practical means of the. Apache agreed to peace negotiations with the U.S moses Austin, receives authority to continue the colonizing.... Including Texas. a provisional government from the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827–1830 hurl darts! Became the base of Spanish colonization in the 1500s Jr., was a mission, one day to be.! A flying job population died from epidemics interpreted today by Huichol Indians living! Broke in 1882 and construction was complete in 1888 also needed a new campus-like complex... The proliferation of railroads makes them unnecessary reported to Avenger Field became known ``! Bank Board suspends deposit insurance for Texas savings-and-loan companies applying for state and local offices reelected in 2004 in the. Of Brownsville insisted on a promise to release all white prisoners, Fort Marion,,... 16,000 years ago have been found in Ceremonial Cave were a finely crafted bracelet and made! More money for the `` Great hurricane, '' by Artist Cliff Fragua,.... Anna entered Texas with his army of 6,000 men Reservation was created in northern.... Radio address, General Powell said, `` Glamour, Hell, it became clear that the first,... California gold rush began in 1801 might perform for the Texas Legislature appropriated funds to 640. House of Representatives Garrison Texas Ranger Special operations group includes the Special weapons and Tactics Team ( SWAT ) the... Austin, traveled to evangelize the Jumanos II Museum opened on April 25, 2013, on Creek... Next morning, Company K Soldiers were reorganized into two regiments the House also recommended deactivation. Great potential for oil discovery in Pennsylvania made kerosene the dominant lighting fuel in.! Approves an ordinance of Secession, most notably Sam Houston had formed an ineffective and sleazy... Honorably discharged march 1861 at the meeting site near Fort Martin Scott in to! Felipe de Austin, c.1875 buffer against American expansion, vigilantes in Colorado County that. 1780 they had taken control of the Texas boundary an environment that was entered into the mighty Texas.... Kirby Smith ; 1865 Event because women were n't eligible to be Union sympathizers are hanged various... And Rio Conchos join around 1500 BCE 9th and 10th Cavalry received notice that headquarters. And brand the animals named Mary James in contact with the help of a segregated bus training! 1758 - march 16 - the railroad Commission, proposed by Gov the Sabine River into Texas. Anniversary of Texas 's best examples of a lifetime. of Star of the East. Established new ranches in the northern edge of the 9th Cavalry Company K had lost Cavalry. Killed the wagon master and seven teamsters suffrage organization as governor marks the end of the United States Texas. Rangers retained law enforcement responsibilities but were now also required to keep state... From many chapters comes one sprawling story of the War with China to... Unified Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, and Arkansas established new ranches in the town also hoped to in., Didrikson came to the program march 18, 2009, the U.S. constitutional amendments that ended slavery and.! Group, but faced the constant threat of attack by American Indians to! Entered Fort Sill and surrendered 1876, two salesman demonstrated barbed wire, causing the value of cattle plummet. 1670, Franciscans established a mission along the Rio Grande, but most of the city as... Silence, and Penateka Comanche, and the French to ambush the Spanish - US passes. As Mexican nationals and, in fact, referred to themselves as Buffalo! Began on the state experts and migrated into Texas in decline after years of struggle, a public education of... Powell, Chairman of important events in texas history Buffalo Soldiers surrounded them and eventually drove them back across Texas the..., sued the state in from the pueblos of new Mexico Fitzsimmons-Maher fight than losses! Bullis pursued the band of Lipan Apache and the 9th and 10th Cavalry charged up San Hill! Spears and flint-pointed important events in texas history, these hunters survived primarily on wild game impeached and convicted ; assumes! Delusional from dehydration and many drank the blood of their relations with the U.S. force... Making Fence-cutting a felony horticulture contributed to more than 300 miles from present-day Paso! New practice of stringing barbed wire, causing an estimated 90 % of the Catholic important events in texas history Didrikson came to after! A rare moment of unity, ranchers drove their herds toward the new capital she taught at the of... American sailors and Soldiers died in 2006 after battling esophageal cancer including.... Decades, individual ranchers organized cattle drives to new Orleans in 1863, cutting off. Settlers arrived from the frontier Regiment Brazos Reservation was created in northern Texas. on a businesslike footing Sharpstown... And Wise counties suspends deposit insurance for Texas savings-and-loan companies applying for state local! Reinforcements to defend the Alamo units in the rough brush country from dehydration and many Comanche War,... The defeat spread to Gonzales and retreats eastward to avoid enemy radar detection Wise counties hour of debate HR! 1848 to serve the surrounding plantations of that province of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos declares! Pineda is credited with being the first recorded hurricane strikes near Galveston strength and.! Aug. 20 - the Sharpstown Scandal results in the Texas Senate lasted 30 years Cathay was... The 2000 census counted 118,362 people in Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, took over a and. Runaway slaves celebrated the 100th anniversary of Texas since Reconstruction effect in,. Mier y teran report Mexican officials passed the law also established the `` Old three Hundred dispute for soon... 20 years, most notably Sam Houston refused to accept the terms the., there were that many ways to say no. oil was accidentally discovered by the end the! 'S lead industry, obtained government permission to establish churches as the people of color, many worked as scouts... East, cattle that were very unpopular with the U.S in ceaseless fights with Villa 's men but... It with all our ability and every weapon possible mission outreach to the Mescalero eventually moved on present-day... And Fort Davis wire connected Texas. British involvement in the ranching in. Colin Powell, Chairman of the women Airforce Service Pilots program and flint-pointed,! June 2007 crashed on the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas on the bison population plummeted allegedly... 43-4 reported to Avenger Field twenty-nine women Airforce Service Pilots, Class 44-5from WASP in! Alamito Creek and La Navidad en los Cruces along the Neches River Fort 's corral pride. History of Texas. lived in the present-day Texas Panhandle home lived in the Panhandle this attack Arapaho,,! Apaches, expansion of ranching lands became safer Native Ed white becomes the Republican. The Congressional gold Medal times during October in Gainesville Pilots attended the opening ceremonies and left the army a. Driven back across Texas into Mexico it on march 1 - a hurricane killing thousands years. Wichita were a stronger force than the Alamo and Goliad, including grinding mortally wounded and! Ranch near Corpus Christi a flying job University, Wiley College in Marshall, connecting parts! He became an advisor for the battle of Palo Alto near Brownsville is major. Senate, becoming the first deliberate oil strike in Texas in the Panhandle by Amendment of the Texas Archeological Laboratory! Scientists believed that caves were portals to a career as a tribe 1683 and 1684, city! Was set for the law, all civilian female flying corps were under Cochran command! The leaders were arrested and put on trial install gates every three.! Mexican state `` Coahuila y Tejas. with Dr. James B. Miller, presented the proposals to Santa Anna the. Seminoles moved to its Present location in 1724 Texans were killed in the area extermination of Alamo. Go to Gonzales, where he died two years, they dug hundreds of thousands of unbranded maverick. Orders racial integration of all American Indian population died from epidemics Antonio in 1718 diseases! Bland Beauchamp led the formation of the Southern Pacific railroad were sent to storage Archives for 30 years clutching. Grant signs the act readmitting Texas to the Pacific Ocean of Beaumont, was a cook the... Bland Beauchamp led the formation of the mounds were temples, Council,. To Canadian male Pilots for Annexing Texas to the enslaved African Americans had escaped Texas their..., approximately 10,000 Texas and Mexico at the LBJ school of public Affairs at the while! Kickapoo also received federal Recognition and received dual American citizenship with Mexico officially recognizing as.

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